The disease chiefly originates from the use of bad turbid
water. Most of the wells especially in the Barsi sub-division have
steps. Though regular bathing is not allowed in these wells, the people stand on the steps below the surface of the water whilst they bathe their limbs and clean their dirty vessels. In the water which thus becomes constantly more and more contaminated are generated hundreds of guineaworms which attach themselves to the naked limbs of those standing on the stops and burrow under the skin. In most parts of the district at the end of rains from about October intermittent fever prevails for two or three months. The fever is caused chiefly by the sudden changes of temperature and the setting in of the easterly winds.
It is not secere and is usually without splenic or other complications. Skin diseases, specially scabies and ringworm, prevail more or less throughout the district. Formerly an epidemic of cholera nearly always broke out at Pandharpur during the annual fairs, especially at the chief fair in July; but of late, owing to better sanitary arrangements, though outbreaks of cholera have not been altogether prevented, the disease generally appears in a mild form. [Of the outbreaks in 1871-72 and 1872-73, in 1871-72 cholera broke twice. The first outbreak lasted from the 27th of July to the 18th of August, during which forty-four persons were attacked and eighteen died; the second outbreak was in March during which three persons were attacked, and one died. In 1872-73 cholera prevailed largely and broke four times. The first outbreak lasted from the 1st of April -to the 25th of June, during which seventy-one persona were attacked and twenty died; the second lasted from the 17th to the end of July, during which forty-nine persons were attacked and twenty-five died; the third lasted from the 8th to the end of August, during which four persons were attacked and all recovered; and the fourth lasted from the 8th to the 16th of November during which two persons were attacked and one died.] Small-pox, as a rule, does not prevail as an epidemic.
In 1882, besides the Sholapur civil hospital there wore four
dispensaries one each at Sholapur, Pandharpur, Barsi, and Karmala,
The number of patients treated was 50,026, of whom 50,037 were
out-patients and 589 in-patients. The cost was ₤1511 (Rs. 15,110).
The following details are taken from the 1882 report:
The prevailing diseases treated in the Sholapur civil hospital
were skin and eye diseases, malarious fevers, injuries, ulcers, rheumatic and respiratory affections, intestinal worms, and bowel complaints. In 1882 cholera appeared after the Pandharpur fair in July and continued throughout the district till the end of August and out of sixty cases treated in the civil hospital twenty-five proved fatal. 1764 primary and 158 revaccinations were performed and 6585 out-patients and 347 in-patients were treated at a cost of £353 (RS. 3530).
The Sholapur dispensary was opened in 1863. The prevailing diseases are malarious fever, skin diseases, respiratory affections, and bowel complaints. In 1882 cholera prevailed from July to
September and out of eighty-one cases thirty-six proved fatal. 13,371 out-patients and 111 in-patients were treated at
a cost of £327 (Rs. 3270).
The Pandharpur dispensary was opened in 1863 in a hired building. The prevailing diseases are malarious fever, intestinal worms, and skin and eye diseases. In 1882 cholera prevailed from the 6th of July to the 11th of August and there were fifty-seven deaths out of 101 cases. 10,112 out-patients and fifty in-patients were treated at a cost of £475 (Rs. 4750).
The Band dispensary was opened in 1866. The prevailing diseases, are malarious fevers, ophthalmia, skin diseases, respiratory affections, and bowel complaints. In
1882 cholera prevailed from the 16th of July to the 26th of August and out of sixty-five cases twenty proved fatal. 13,406 out-patients and forty in-potatos were treated at a cost of £228 (Rs. 2280).
The Karmala dispensary was opened in 1872 in a hired building The prevailing diseases are malarious fevers, eye and skin diseases, rheumatism, intestinal worms, and bowel complaints. In 1882 cholera prevailed in July and August in a mild form. 143 persons were vaccinated, and 6563 out-patients and forty-one in-patients were treated at a cost of £128 (Rs. 1280).
Besides the four dispensaries within British limits, the Akalkot native state dispensary was opened in 1870. The commonest diseases were malarious fevers, conjunctivitis, respiratory affections, bowel complaints, and skin diseases. Cholera although prevalent in the neighbourhood did not visit the town. Nearly 300 primary and 200 revaccinations were performed during the year: 7276 outdoor and fifty-seven in-door patients were treated at a cost of £186 12s. (Rs.
According to the 1881 census 2116 persons (males 1200, females 916) or 036 per cent of the population were infirm. Of the total number 1962 (males 1099, females 863) were Hindus, 153 (males 100, females 53) Musalmans, and one Christian male only. Of 2116, the total number of infirm persons, 79 (males 58, females 21) or 373 per cent were of unsound mind, 1282 (males 614, females 668) or 60.58 per cent were blind,354 (males 210,females 144) or 1672 per cent were deaf and dumb, and 401 (males 318, females 83) or 18-95 per cent were lepers. The details are:
In 1883-84 under the supervision of the Deputy Sanitary Commissioner, Deccan Registration District, the work of vaccination
was carried on by twelve vaccinators with yearly salaries varying from £16 16s (Rs 168) to £28 16s (Rs. 288). Of these operators
nine were distributed over the rural parts of the district, and of the remaining three, one worked at each of the towns of Sholapur Barsi and Pandharpur and also in some of the villages within a radius of three miles round the town. Besides the vaccinators the medical officer of the Karmala dispensary carried on vaccine operations. The total number of persons vaccinated was 26,000 besides 438
revaccinations, compared with 13,435 primary vaccinations in 1869-70. The following statement shows the sex, religion, and age of the. persons primarily vaccinated:.
Under One Year.
Above One Year.
In 188-84 the total cost or these operations, exclusive or those performed in
the Karmala dispensary, was £604 14s. (Rs. 6047) or about 5⅝d. (3 ¾ as.) for each successful case. The charges included the following items: supervision and inspection £243 12s. (Rs. 2436), establishment £351 8s. (Rs. 3514), and contingencies £9 14s. (Rs. 97). Of these the supervising and inspecting charges were met from Government provincial funds, while £265 18s. (Rs. 2659) were borne by the local funds of the different sub-divisions and £95, 4s. (Rs. 952) by the municipalities of Sholapur Barsi and Pandharpur
towns for the services of a vaccinator in each of these towns.
Seven [Collector's Letter to the Revenue Commissioner, 2337 of 18th October 1870.]sorts of cattle disease are known in the district: varyacharog or motharog or great disease, khurkut or hoof disease, ghatsarprog or putrid sorethroat, dhavarrog or swelling of the throat, ghurirog or epilepsy, mdnmodi or neck-breaking disease, and parkida or intestinal worms. Of these varyacharog is mast fatal. The symptoms are diarrhoea, running at the mouth, inability to eat, and sinking of the eyes. The body assumes a dark colour. The disease lasts one to three days. In khurkut or hoof-disease the mouth tongue and hoofs of the animal are affected. It lasts about fifteen days and if precautions are not taken in time the hoofs fall off. In ghatsarprog and dhavarrog or the swelling of the throat which are uncommon, the animal refuses food and dies in one or two days. In ghurirog or epilepsy the animal respires with difficulty, refuses food, and dies after two or three days. In mdnmodi which lasts for a day only, the animal is unable to remain erect. Parkida is a worm which causes colic and purging. The disease generally ends fatally in three hours.
The total number of deaths shown in the Sanitary Commissioner's yearly reports, for the eighteen years ending 1883, is 254,877 or an average mortality of 14,159, or, according to the 1881 census, of twenty-four in every thousand of the population. During the famine year of 1877 the total number of deaths was very high, being 35,054 or 147 per cent above the average. Of the average number of deaths 7777 or 5492 per cent were returned as due to fevers, 1217 or 8.59 per cent to cholera,
381 or 2.69 per cent to small-pox, 1451 or 1024 per cent to bowel complaints, 212 or 1.49 per cent to violence and injuries, and 3121 or 22.04 per cent to miscellaneous diseases. An examination of the returns shows that fever, which during the eighteen years ending 1883 caused an average yearly mortality of 7777 or 54.92 per cent, was below the average in the first nine years ending 1874 and above the average in the next nine years ending 1883, Of the nine years below the average two years 1866 and 1867 had between 2000 and 3000 deaths; two year's 1868 and 1869 between 3000 and 4000; two years 1870 and 1871 between 4000 and 5000; one year 1873 between 5000 and 6000; and two years 1872 and 1874 between 6000 and 7000. Of the other nine years above the average two years 1880 and 1882 had between 7800' and 8000 deaths; two years 1875 and 1881 between 8000 and 9000; two years 1876 and 1883 between 10,000 and 11,000; one 1879 between 12,000 and 13,000; one 1877 between 16,000 and 17,000; and one 1878 between 17,000 and 18,000. Of the deaths from cholera, which amounted to 21,904 and averaged 1217, nine years caused deaths above the average and nine below the average. Of the nine years above the average two years 1875 and 1878 had between 4000 and 3000 deaths; three years 1869, 1876, and 1883 between 3000 and 2000; and four years 1866, 1872, 1877, and 1881 between 2000 and 1300. Of the nine years below the average one year 1868 had between 800 and 700 deaths; three years 1870, 1871, and 1882 between 500 and 200; three years 1867,1879, and 1880 had less than fifty deaths; and two years 1873 and 1874 were free from cholera. Of the deaths from small-pox which amounted to 6863 and averaged 381, 2343 or 34-14 per cent happened in 1872, 1214 or 1769 per cent in 1868, and 1080 or 1573 per cent in 1877. The only other years which were over the average were 1869 with 470 deaths, 1871 with 459 deaths, and 1867 with 448 deaths. Of the twelve years below the average two years 1870 and 1873 had between 300 and 200 deaths; two years 1866 and 1876 between 200 and 100; one 1883 between sixty and fifty; three years 1874, 1875, and 1878 between forty and ten; two years 1879 and 1882 had less than ten deaths; and two years 1880 and 1881 were free from small-pox. Of the deaths from bowel complaints which amounted to 26,117 and averaged 1451, five years were above the average and thirteen below the average. The number varied from 5016 in 1877 to 710 in 1871. Injuries, with a total of 3823 and an average of 212, varied from 421 in 1866 to 102 in 1868. Other causes, with a total mortality of 56,180 and an average of 3121, varied from 10,375 in 1877 to 932 in 1867.
Birth returns are available only for the thirteen years ending 1883. During these thirteen years the yearly totals varied from
20,634 in 1883 to 6718 in 1879 and averaged 12,720. The details are [The death returns are believed to be fairly correct and the birth returns to be incomplete.]