BETWEEN 1819 and 1824, for purposes of civil and criminal justice, Sholapur was under Poona. In 1825 a first or senior assistant judge was appointed for Sholapur.
In 1842 Sholapur was made a separate district, excluding Pandharpur, Sangola, and Malsiras which were then under Satara and including besides other sub-divisions Indi, Sindgi, Bagevadi, and Muddebihal which are now under Bijapur. In that year the senior assistant judge gave place to a district judge. About 1848-49 Bijapur was added to Sholapur. About 1864-65 when Indi, Sindgi, Bijapur, Bagevadi, and Muddebihal were taken and included in the present Bijapur district and Pandharpur and Sangola were added to Sholapur, the district judge gave place toa joint judge From March 1866 to March 1884 Sholapur was in charge of a senior assistant judge and joint sessions judge with the full powers of a District Judge. In 1875-76 Malsiras was added
to Sholapur. From April 1884 Sholapur has been made a separate charge of a District Judge.
At present (1884) the district has a District Judge and six sub-judges. The sub-judges are all second class with powers to try original suits of not more than £500 (Rs. 5000). Of the six sub-judges one is for Malsiras and Sangola and the others are for Barsi, Karmala, Madha, Pandharpur, and Sholapur. From January 1883 the sub-judge for Malsiras and Sangola holds his court alternately for two months at Malote in Malsiras and at Sangola. Till the end of February 1883 there was one sub-judge for Karmala and Madha, holding his court alternately for one month at each station; since then Karmala has been in charge of a separate sub-judge. The average distance of the Sholapur sub-judge's court from its furthest six villages is thirty-two miles, of the Barsi court twenty-eight miles, of the Karmala court thirty miles, of the Madha court twenty-six miles, of the Pandharpur court twenty miles, and of the Malshras and Sangola courts nineteen miles in Malsiras and twenty in Sangola.
During the thirteen years ending 1882 the number of suits decided varied from 7116 in 1872 to 2172 in 1882 and averaged 4869. These thirteen years may be divided into three periods. In the first period of seven years ending 1876 the number of suits varied from 7116 in 1872 to 5553 in 1874 and averaged 6326. In the second period of three years ending 1879 the suits fell about forty per cent, varying from 4238 in 1878 to 3459 in 1877 and averaging 8816. And in the third period of three years ending 1882, owing to the introduction of the conciliators and village munsifs under the Deccan Agriculturists' Relief Act in 1879 the suits further fell by about thirty-four per cent, varying from 3002 in 1880 to 2172 in 1882 and averaging 2525. Of the total number of cases decided, fifty-seven per cent have on an average been given against the defendant in his absence, the percentage varying from 70.5 in 1872 to 6.2 in 1881. For the ten years ending 1879 the percentage varied from
70.5 in 1872 to 5.39 in 1879; and for the next three years ending 1882, owing to the introduction of conciliators and village munsifs under Act XVII. of 1879 the percentage fell suddenly, varying from 10.6 in 1880 to 6.2 in 1881. The details are:
Of contested cases, during this period of thirteen years an average
of 13.6 per cent have been decided for the defendant, the percentage
varying from 21.6 in 1870 to 7.2 in 1878. In 130 or six per
cent of the suits decided in 1882 the decree was executed by
putting the plaintiff in possession of the immovable property
claimed. The number of this class of cases varied from fifty-nine out
of 2401 in 1881 to 201 out of 6822 in 1870. In 337 or 15.5 per
cent of the 1882 decisions, decrees for money due were executed of the
attachment or sale of property, 262 Or twelve per cent being for immovable
property and seventy-five or 3.5 per cent for movable property. The number of
attachments or sales of immovable property varied from 262 in 1882 to 2659 in
1875, and of movable property from seventy-five in 1882 to 643 in 1875. During
the thirteen years ending 1882 the number of decrees executed by the arrest of
debtors varied from eight in 1881 to 460 in 1870. For the first seven years
ending 1876 this number fell steadily from 460 in 1870 to eighty-two in 1876.
During the next six years (1877-1882), the number was between eight and
twenty-nine with slight alternate rises and falls. The following table shows
that during the same thirteen years (1870-1882) the number of civil prisoners
varied from 145 in 1874 to twelve in 1881:
Disclosure of Property.
The following statement shows in tabular form the working of the district civil courts during the thirteen years ending 1882:
Registration has two branches, one under Act
III. of 1877 and the other termed village registration under the Deccan Agriculturists' Relief Act (Act
XVII of 1879). Under Act III. of 1877 the work of registration employs seven special or full-time sub-registrars, one being stationed at each of the sub-divisional head-quarters. According to the registration report for 1882-83 the gross receipts for that year under Act III. of 1877 amounted to £430 (Rs. 4300) and the charges to £405 (Rs. 4050), thus leaving a credit balance of £25 (Rs. 250). Of the total number of 1523 registrations, 1302 related to immovable property, 190 to movable property, and thirty-one were wills. Of 1302 documents relating to immovable property 375 were mortgage deeds, 660 deeds of sale, thirty-three deeds of gift, 139 leases, and ninety-five miscellaneous deeds. Including £44,996 (Rs. 4,49,960) the value of immovable property transferred, the total value of property affected by registration under Act
III. of 1877 amounted to £52,597 (Rs. 5,25,970). Under Act XVII of 1879 village registration employs twenty-seven village registrars, all special or full-time officers. In every case a sub-registrar of assurances under Act III of 1877 is ex-officio a village registrar, has within the limits of his charge as sub-registrar a jurisdiction similar to that of other village registrars, issues registration books to the village registrars of his circle, and embodies in one general form the monthly accounts of the village registrars. In 1882-83 the gross receipts under Act
XVII of 1879 amounted to £344 (Rs. 3440) and the charges to £647 (Rs. 6470), thus showing a deficit of £303 Jfis. 3030). Of 12,574 the "total number of registrations, 7396 related to immovable property and 5178 to movable property. Of 7896 documents relating to immovable property, 1227 were mortgage deeds, 1431 deeds of sale, twenty-two deeds of gift, 4376 leases, and 340 miscellaneous deeds. Including £46,657 (Rs. 4,66,570). the value of immovable property transferred, the total value of property affected by registration under Act
XVII of 1879 amounted
to £74,070 (Rs. 7,40,700). Owing to the introduction of village registration under Act XVII. of 1879, registration under Act III. of 1877 has considerably fallen. Compared with the figures of 1879, the year previous to the working of the Act XVII. of 1879, the 1882 registration figures under Act III. of 1877 show a fall of 2825 in registered documents, of £493 (Rs. 4930) in fees received, and of £51,494 (Rs. 5,14,940) in the value of property affected by registration. Under Act XVII. of 1879 a special officer styled the inspector of village registry offices examines village registry offices. Over both branches of registration, in addition to the supervision by the Collector as District Registrar, a special scrutiny under the control of the Inspector General of Registration and Stamps is carried on by the divisional inspector.
During the calendar year 1883, of the work done by the several
officers appointed under the Deccan Agriculturists' Relief Act of
1879, thirty-four village registrars registered 7312 documents;
seventy-seven conciliators disposed of 12,610 applications and under
sections 44 and 45 of the Act forwarded 4085 agreements to courts
nineteen village munsifs decided 332 cases and under chapter II. of
the Act six sub-judges decided 1648 cases.
At present (1883) nineteen officers share the administration of
criminal justice. Of these, five, including the District Magistrate
are magistrates of the first class, and fourteen are magistrates of
the second and third classes. Of the magistrates of the first class
two are covenanted European civilians, and three, the assistant, the
district, and the huzur deputy collectors, are Natives. The District
Magistrate has the general supervision of the whole district and of
the other first class magistrates the huzur deputy collector has the
charge of about eight square miles within Sholapur city limits and
of 59,890 people, and others as assistant or deputy collectors have
each an average charge of 1504 square miles and 174,199 people
In 1882 the District Magistrate decided fifty-four original and
appeal cases and other first class magistrates 942 original and
appeal cases. The average charge of the fourteen second and third
class magistrates all of whom are Natives, was 646 square miles
with a population of 83,212. In 1882' these magistrates decide
1000 original criminal cases. Besides their magisterial duties three
officers exercise revenue powers as mamlatdars, mahalkaris, or head
clerks of mamlatdars. Besides these officers, from May 1883
bench of three persons at Pandharpur has been given the powers of
third class magistrates. In 1882-83, under section 14 of the
Bombay Village Police Act (Act VIII. of 1867) 629 village headmen
or police patils were entrusted with power to imprison for twenty 24hours in the village office or chavdi. The average yearly emolument
of these village headmen in cash and land amount to about £2 8 (Rs. 24).
The district has no special criminal classes. Small waridering
parties who have generally their head-quarters in the Nizams
territory, constantly move through the district. They often commit
thefts and take refuge with their stolen goods in the Nizam
In the year 1882 the total strength of the district or regular police
force was 527. The force consisted of the District Superintendent,
one subordinate officer, ninety inferior subordinate officers,
fifteen mounted and 421 foot constables. The cost of maintaining
this force was for the Superintendent a total yearly salary of £637 8s. (Rs. 6374), for the subordinate officers on yearly salaries of not less than £120 (Rs. 1200) and the inferior subordinate officers on yearly salaries of less than £120 (Rs. 1200) a total yearly cost of £23()0 8s. (Rs. 23,004); and for the foot and mounted constables a cost of £4737 12s. (Rs. 47,376). Besides their pay a total sum of £217 16s. (Rs. 2178) was yearly allowed for the horse and travelling allowances of the Superintendent; £234 (Rs. 2340) for the pay and travelling allowances of his establishment; £114 (Rs. 1140) for the horse and travelling allowances of subordinate officers', and £894 6s. (Rs. 8943) a year for contingencies and petty charges. Thus the yearly cost of maintaining the police force amounted to £9135 10s. (Rs. 91,355). On an area of 4521 square miles and a population of 582,487 these figures give one constable for every 8.56 square miles and 1103 people, and a cost of £2 5d. (Rs. 20 5/24) to the square mile or 3¾d. (2½ as.) to each head of the population. Of the total strength of 527 exclusive of the Superintendent, twenty-six, four officers and twenty-two men, were in 1882 employed as guards at district, central, or subsidiary jails; eighty-five, ten of them officers and seventy-five men, were engaged as guards over treasuries and lock-ups or as escorts to prisoners and treasure; 342, sixty-six of them officers and 276 men, were employed on other duties in the district; and seventy-four were stationed in towns, municipalities, and cantonments. Of the whole number, exclusive of the Superintendent, 244 were provided with fire-arms and forty-two with swords or with swords and batons; and 241 were provided with batons only; 117, of whom thirty were officers and eighty-seven men, could read and write, and eighty-seven men were under instruction.
Except the Superintendent who was a European, the members of the police force were all natives of India. Of these, thirty-four officers and 190 men were Muhammadans, seven officers and twelve men Brahmans, eleven officers and forty-two men Rajputs, twenty-seven officers and 141 men Marathas, one officer a Prabhu, one man a Lingayat, ten officers and fifty men Hindus of other castes, one officer a Parsi,
and one officer a Christian.
The returns for the nine years ending 1882 show a total of 102 murders and attempts to murder, thirty-five culpable homicides, 113 cases of grievous hurt, 386 gang and other robberies, and 21,716 other offences. During these nine years the total number of offences gave a yearly average of 2483 or one offence for every 234 of the population. The returns show that during the famine year of 1877 the total number of offences was unusually large, being 4083 or about sixty-four per cent more than the average. The number of murders varied from two in 1875 to twenty-eight in 1879 and averaged eleven; culpable homicides varied from none for two years to nine in 1879 and averaged four;
cases of grievous hurt varied from eight in 1876 and 1881 to seventeen in 1874 and averaged twelve; gang and other robberies varied from fifteen in 1874 to ninety-two in 1877 and averaged forty-three; and other offences varied from 1661 in 1874 to 3955 in 1877 and averaged 2413. Of the whole number of persons arrested the convictions varied from forty-one per cent in 1880 to seventy-two in 1877 and averaged sixty-two per cent. The percentage of stolen property recovered varied from fifty in 1881 to seventy-six in 1882 and averaged fifty-nine per cent. The details are:
Besides the lock-up at each mamlatdar's office there is a district
jail at Sholapur and a subordinate jail at Malsiras. The number of convicts in the Sholapur jail on the 31st of December 1882
was 113, of whom ninety-five were males and eighteen females. During the year 1883, 204 convicts, of whom 178 were males and twenty six females, were admitted and 215, of whom 186 were males and twenty-nine females, were discharged. During the year the daily average of prisoners was 107 and at the close of the year the number of convicts was 102, of whom eighty-seven were males
and fifteen females. Of 204 convicts admitted during the year 156 males and twenty-three females were sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year, ten males and two females were for over one year and not more than two years; nine males were for more than two years and not more than five years; and two males and one female were under sentence of transportation, and one male was sentenced to death. The total yearly cost of diet was £156 6s. (Rs. 1563) or an average of
£1 9s. (Rs. 14½) for each prisoner.