The first Muhammedan invader of the Deccan was Ala-ud-din, the nephew and son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din Khilji the emperor of Delhi. He undertook an expedition against Bhilsa where he captured a rich booty, a part of which he sent on to Delhi. Jalal-ud-din was much pleased, and rewarded him with the viceroyalty of Oude in addition to the Government of Karra. When Ala-ud-din was at Bhilsa, he heard of the wealth of Devagiri, and meditated an expedition against that city. He withheld the tribute that was due from his district, accumulated funds and raised a force of about 8,000 men, which he represented was for an advance against Chanderi, a town in Malwa. Ala-ud-din kept his real design a profound secret, and having learnt from his spies that Ramdev's army was occupied at some distance from the capital he left Karra in 1294 and suddenly appeared before Ellichpur which he captured and plundered. Ramdev was completely taken by surprise. He collected all his available troops and sent them against the invader, but they were defeated at Lasura near Devagiri, and Ala-ud-din entered the city of Devagiri and plundered it. Ramdev shut himself up in the fortress which was hastily provisioned for a siege. Ala-ud-din appeared before it, and announced that he was only the advance guard of the army of the Sultan of Delhi. Ramdev sued for peace, and succeeded in persuading Ala-ud-din to come to terms under certain easy conditions, when Ramdev's son appeared on the scene with the absent army, and attacked the invaders. The battle would have gone hard with Ala-ud-din, had he not received the timely assistance of Malik Nusrat, who had been left with 1,000 men in charge of the city. Ala-ud-din succeeded in defeating his adversary. Ala-ud-din treated the vanquished with greater severity, and raised his demands; Ramdev submitted. A very heavy indemnity was exacted, Ellichpur and the surrounding country was made over to the victors, and the Raja also promised to send an annual tribute to Delhi.
Ala-ud-din returned to Karra, and shortly afterwards murdered his uncle on 19th July 1296 and usurped the throne on October 3, 1296. Ramdev did not keep up to his promises under the terms of the treaty. In 1307, an expedition of 30,000 horse, under the command of Malik Naib Kafur Hazardkiari and Khvaja Haji, was fitted out against Devagiri. The Raja's sons fled, but he himself was taken prisoner and sent to Delhi where he was detained for six months and was then released with all honours. The Sultan gave Ramdev a red canopy and the title of Rai Rayan (king of kings). In 1308, Malik Naib Kafur and Khvaja Haji arrived with an army at Devagiri, intended for an expedition against Warangal. Rai Rayan Ramdev rendered every assistance, and added a Maratha force of his own
consisting or horse and foot. Prataprudra of Warangal was reduced and became a tributary. The imperial army then returned with great spoil by way of Devagiri to Delhi. In 1311 Malik Naib Kafur and Khvaja Haji arrived again at Devagiri for the conquest of the country to the south of the Krishna. Rai Rayan Ramdev was dead, and as the loyalty of his son Shankardev who succeeded him was doubted, a portion of the force was left at Jalna. Malik Kafur marched into the southern countries, and after reducing the rajas returned to Devagiri in April 1311, and then proceeded to Delhi.
In 1313 Malik Kafur came back to Devagiri and the fortress was occupied a second time by the Muhammedan troops. The Raja was dethroned and put to death, and his territories were annexed. Malik Kafur was appointed to settle the Deccan, but was soon afterwards ordered to Delhi, on account of the serious illness of the king. Harpaldev, the son-in-law of Ramdev, re-took Devagiri and the whole of the country which had been in possession of the Muhammedans again passed on to Harpaldev.
On January 6, 1316, Ala-ud-din died and was succeeded by his son Kutbuddin Mubarak Shah. The new Sultan marched to Devagiri in 1317, and troops were sent against Harpaldev. He was taken prisoner and brought to Devagiri, where he was first flayed alive and then beheaded. Sholapur district for the first time came under Muhammedan rule. The Sultan remained at Devagiri during the rains of 1318. He selected Malik Yak Lakhi to be the governor of Devagiri, and appointed revenue collectors and other officers throughout the country. The Sultan was, however, much given to dissipation, and became infatuated with Khusru Khan, whom he raised to great dignity and sent on an expedition to the south, in consequence of which, Malik Asad and other malcontents at Devagiri formed a plot to seize the Sultan on his way to Delhi, but the conspiracy was discovered. Malik Asad and his confederates were arrested and beheaded. The three sons of the late Ala-ud-din at Gwalior were also put to death.
After the Sultan returned to Delhi, Malik Yak Lakhi, the governor of Devagiri, rebelled and a force was sent against him, which made him prisoner. He was publicly disgraced, and Malik Ain-ul-Mulk was made governor, and Taj-ul-Mulk and Yamkhir-ul-Mulk were appointed his assistants. These soon settled the province, regulated the forces, and arranged for the payment of the tribute.
Mubarak Shah was anxious to have Khusru Khan near him, and sent relays of bearers to bring the latter with all haste from Devagiri. Shortly after his arrival, the favourite murdered his master and ascended the throne on April 15, 1320 under the name of Nasir-ud-din. The usurper conferred the office of divan on Taj-ul-Mulk, while Ain-ul-Mulk received the title of Alam Khan, but he was exceedingly
unpopular, and Ain-ul-Mulk deserted him. On August 22, 1320 Nasir-ud-din was defeated and put to death by Amir Ghazi Malik who ascended the throne as Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluk Shah, on September 8, 1320.
Tughluks: In 1321 the Sultan's eldest son, Muhammad Fakhr-ud-din Juna, now called Ulugh Khan, was sent with an army against Warangal. He was joined by some officers and men of Devagiri, and started on his expedition, but after a protracted siege a panic seized the troops, and the prince escaped with only 3,000 horse to Devagiri. Strong reinforcements arrived from Delhi in the following year, and the prince was again sent into Telangana. Bidar was captured. Warangal was also reduced, and the Raja Prataprudra was taken prisoner and sent on to Delhi. In 1324 the Sultan proceeded against Lakhnauti, and sent for Ulugh Khan from Devagiri to act as his vice-regent during his absence. On his return in 1325, the Sultan was killed by the fall of a pavilion which his eldest son had ordered to be erected for him.
Ulugh Khan ascended the throne as Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluk Shah. He was an able but perverse ruler, and his extravagant projects distracted the people and ruined his exchequer. He tried to introduce a paper currency, but substituted copper tokens for paper. But the most cruel project of all was his attempt to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri. The latter city was centrally situated, and " the design was by no means unreasonable in itself, if it had been begun without precipitancy and conducted with steadiness ". As it was, the people suffered terrible hardships, and the Sultan was forced to abandon his project.
In the Deccan the Sultan's nephew Baha-ud-din rebelled, and Khvaja Jahan and other Amirs were sent against him. The Sultan's troops arrived at Devagiri, and the rebel was defeated and pursued into Karnataka, given up by Ballaldev, and was put to a cruel death. It was about this time that the Sultan arrived in person, and ordered the whole of the inhabitants to remove from Delhi to Devagiri, which was in future to be called Daulatabad or the " fortunate city ". But many perished on the road, and those who arrived at Daulatabad could not endure the suffering and exile, and the grave-yards of Musalmans sprang up all round the city. After this the people were permitted to return to Delhi, but two years later they were again compelled on pain of death to leave it. The Sultan became more cruel than ever, and in 1341 he arrived at Daulatabad which was visited by a famine, and made heavy demands upon the people. He sent a part of his army back to Delhi under Khvaja Jahan, and then started on an expedition towards the east coast; but the force was attacked by pestilence at Warangal, and he himself returned very ill to Daulatabad. The Sultan made Nusrat Khan governor of Bidar, and
entrusted the Maratha country to Kutlagh Khan, his preceptor. The Sultan, who was still ill, started for Delhi in 1341, and permitted the inhabitants to return with him. Owing to the famine which prevailed, the people suffered terribly, and they rose in rebellion on all sides. Nusrat Khan at Bidar also revolted, and was besieged and captured. Next, Alisha, the nephew of Zafar Khan, was sent from Daulatabad to collect the revenues of Gulbarga, but he treacherously killed Bairam, the chief of Gulbarga, and then killed the naib of Bidar. Kutlagh Khan went in person against him from Daulatabad, and Alisha was defeated and taken prisoner. According to Ferishta these revolts were so successful that in 1344 Muhammad had no part of his Deccan territories left except Daulatabad. This statement seems exaggerated as in 1346 Musalmans were governing at Gulbarga, Raichur, Bijapur, Bidar. Ganjauti, Raibag, Gilhari, Hukeri and Berar.
In 1344 the Hindu Rajas of Telangana and Karnataka formed an alliance, and expelled all the Muhammedan garrisons in their dominions. To make matters worse, the officials of Kutlagh Khan were accused of reducing the revenues of the country by their rapacity. In 1346 the Sultan proposed to send a former governor, Ain-ul-Mulk, back to Daulatabad. The latter suspected treachery and rebelled, but was defeated and forgiven. Maulana Nizam-ud-din, the brother of Kutlagh Khan, was then appointed governor of the Deccan; and a great addition was laid on the revenues of the country which was divided into four provinces, and a governor was appointed to each. The Sultan also despatched a large army in charge of his son-in-law Imad-ul-Mulk who was probably appointed governor of Berar, as he made Ellichpur his head-quarters. Instructions were further sent that the treasure which Kutlagh Khan had accumulated, but which could not be forwarded to Delhi on account of the bad state of roads, should be kept in the hill-fort adjoining the city of Daulatabad. The people were disheartened at the increased demands made upon them, and many in Gujarat and Daulatabad rebelled. Muhammad Tughluk marched in person to Gujarat in 1347 and sent two officials, Zin-banda (Majd-ul-Mulk) and Pisar Thanesari, to inquire into the disaffection at Daulatabad. These men were detested on account of their cruelties. The rebellion in Gujarat was suppressed in 1347, but some of the rebels fled to Daulatabad, and were protected by the Moghal Amirs. The Sultan ordered Nizam-ud-din to send 1,500 horsemen with the most noted of the foreign Amirs, ostensibly as a reinforcement, but in reality to make prisoners of them on their arrival. At the end of the first stage, the Amirs suspected treachery, murdered their guards, and returned to Daulatabad, where they put Nizam-ud-din into confinement. The two officials, Zin-banda and Pisar Thanesari were beheaded, and the treasure in the fort was seized. The Amirs then
selected Ismail Khan to be their leader and placed him on the throne. The Hindu Rajas made common cause with them, and there was a general revolt in the Deccan. Muhammad Tughluk acted with great vigour. He arrived at Daulatabad with a large force, defeated the rebels, and besieged their leader, Ismail Khan, in the hill-fort of Daulatabad. Hasan Gangu and other insurgents fled towards Bidar and Gulbarga, and the Sultan sent Imad-ul-Mulk against them. However, before the Deccan was fully settled, the people in Gujarat rose in rebellion. The Sultan appointed Imad-ul-Mulk governor and leaving Kivam-ud-din and other nobles to carry on the siege, proceeded to Gujarat and defeated the rebels. In the meantime insurgents under Hasan Gangu attacked Imad-ul-Mulk who was defeated and slain; while Kivam-ud-din and his party fled towards Gujarat, and Hasan Gangu started towards the city of Daulatabad. He crossed the Godavari without a hitch but had to fight with the advance guard of the enemy at Daulatabad. He defeated them and marched towards Bid and occupied it. Subsequently he routed the Delhi army and met Ismail Khan at Nizampur, where he was joined by the rebels from the hill-fort. Ismail Khan abdicated in favour of Hasan Gangu who assumed the royal dignity under the name of Ala-ud-din Hasan Gangu Bahamani on August 3, 1347. He was the founder of the dynasty of the Bahamani Sultans. Muhammad Tughluk was disheartened, but resolved first to settle Gujarat thoroughly before he returned to the Deccan. This, however, was never accomplished as the Sultan died in 1350, and the Deccan was lost to his kingdom. Hasan founded a dynasty, which, in honour of his patron, a Brahman, he called Bahamani, and which held command of the Deccan for nearly 150 years. The Bahamani capital was at Gulbarga about sixty miles east of Sholapur, till, in 1427, it was moved to Bidar or Ahmadabad-Bidar about 100 miles further east. By 1351 Ala-ud-din Hasan Gangu Bahamani, by treating the local authorities in a liberal and friendly spirit, had brought under his power every part of the Deccan which had before been subject to the throne of Delhi. Hasan Gangu declared his independence in 1347, and made Gulbarga his capital. He seized the frontier fortresses of Karnatak and Telangana. The new kingdom which he founded comprised the Maratha country, and was divided into the following four provinces: Daulatabad and Berar on the north, and Gulbarga and the ceded districts of Telangana on the south. Daulatabad province included the country between Junnar, Daulatabad, Bid and Paithan on the north and Pune and Chaul on the south. For nearly a century the Bahamani kings were engaged in wars against Vijayanagar, which rose out of the ruins of the kingdom of Karnatak, and became the greatest Hindu State of southern India. In 1357 Hasan Gangu was invited to occupy Gujarat, and advanced with a large army for that
purpose, but fell ill and returned to Gulbarga where he died on February 11,1358. In 1357 Ala-ud-din had divided his kingdom into four provinces or tarafs over each of which he set a provincial governor or tarafdar. Sholapur formed part of the province of Gulbarga, which, besides Sholapur, included Gulbarga, Bijapur, Raichur, Mudgal, Sagar and Naldurg. His successor, Muhammad Shah, invaded Telangana and captured Golkonda, the Raja of which sued for peace and promised to pay tribute. He next sent an order on the treasury of the Raja of Vijayanagar, probably in token of his suzerainty. This was resented as an insult, and in 1372 a war ensued in which the Raja of Vijayanagar was defeated and reduced to the position of a tributary. While Muhammad Shah was absent on these expeditions, an insurrection broke out in Daulatabad, which originated in false news of his death. Bahram Khan, the son-in-law of the late king Hasan Gangu, was governor of Daulatabad, and as he had a dispute with Muhammad Shah, he invited Sultan Firoz of Delhi to occupy his province. The Hindu Rajas of southern India also offered to become tributaries to Sultan Firoz, as they found that they only obtained a change of masters by having assisted Hasan Gangu. Sultan Firoz was in Gujarat preparing for a second campaign against Thatta, but he does not appear to have responded to their call, as he returned to Delhi when the campaign was over. In the meantime Muhammad Shah, after having reduced the Hindu Rajas, proceeded to Daulatabad and quelled the insurrection. During the latter part of the fourteenth century, under the excellent rule of Muhammad Shah Bahamani (1358-1375), the banditti which for ages had harassed the trade of the Deccan were broken and scattered and the people enjoyed good government. The period of prosperity during which period probably Sholapur and several other forts to the east were built, was followed by the awful calamity of the Durga Devi famine when twelve rainless years (1396-1407) are said to have turned the land to a desert. In the first years of the famine Mahmud Shah Bahamani (1378-1397) is said to have kept ten thousand bullocks to bring grain from Gujarat to the Deccan, and to have founded an orphan school in each of the seven leading towns of his dominions. No efforts of any rulers could preserve order of life through so long a series of fatal years. Whole districts were left without people and the strong places fell from the Musalmans into the hands of the local chiefs. The successors of Muhammad Shah were often engaged in wars with Vijayanagar. In 1398 the Hindu king Dev Rai invaded the Raichur Doab. Firoz Shah Bahamani marched against him, and detached a portion of his army to check Narsing Rai, the chief of Gondvana, who had been incited by the Musalman Sultans of Malva and Khandesh to invade Berar. Dev Rai was easily overcome, and the king marched against Narsing Rai, who
was driven back into Gondvana, and the chief tort, Kherla, was captured. The Raja became a tributary. In the same year Timur invaded India, and Firoz Shah offered to be his vassal. The Sultans of Malva and Gujarat were suspicious of this embassy, and intrigued with Dev Rai of Vijayanagar to attack Firoz Shah. The country was again wasted by two rainless years in 1421 and 1422. Multitudes of cattle died, and the people broke into revolt. On September 22, 1422, "Ahmad Shah Wali succeeded Firoz Shah, and having reduced Vijayanagar and Warangal, turned his attention towards the Sultans of Malva and Gujarat, who were getting troublesome. He remained a year at Ellichpur, and in 1425 repaired the Narnala fort and completed the fortifications of Gawilgad. In the following year Sultan Hoshang of Malva tried to prevail on Narsing Rai of Kherla to invade Berar, and when the latter declined, the Sultan marched on Kherla. Ahmad Shah went to the assistance of Narsing Rai, and Sultan Hoshang was severely repulsed. In 1427 the Bahamani king removed his capital to Bidar, so as to be nearer to his Muhammedan neighbours, and married his eldest son, Ala-ud-din, to a daughter of the Sultan of Khandesh, in order to strengthen himself against the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat. In 1429, the leading Bahamani noble, whose title was Malik-ut-Tujjar or Chief of the Merchants, went through the Deccan restoring order. So entirely had the country fallen waste that the old villages had disappeared and fresh ones had to be formed generally including the lands of two or three of the old villages. Land was given to all who would till it free of rent for the first year and for a horse-bag of grain for the second year. This settlement was entrusted to Dadu Narsu Kale, an experienced Brahman and to a Turkish eunuch of the court. Ahmad Shah died in 1435, and was succeeded by Ala-ud-din Shah II. In the same year the king's brother Muhammad Khan was sent to demand arrears of tribute from Vijayanagar, but he rebelled, and the king proceeded in person against Muhammad Khan who was defeated and forgiven. An expedition was despatched into the Konkan in the following year, and some of the Rajas were reduced to the status of feudatories. It was here that the king received the beautiful daughter of the Raja of Sangameshvar in marriage, and neglected his Musalman queen for the Hindu princess. This led to a war with his father-in-law Nasir Khan, the Sultan of Khandesh, who invaded Berar, assisted by the King of Gujarat and the Raja of Kherla. Khan Jahan, the governor, was besieged in Narnala, but escaped and joined the army which Ala-ud-din had despatched under Malik-ut-Tujjar to oppose the invaders. He was then sent with a portion of the force towards Ellichpur to cut off the contingent of the Raja of Kherla while the main army routed the forces of Khandesh and Gujarat at the foot of the Rohankheda pass which leads up to the
Ajanta hills. Malik-ut-Tujjar followed up the enemy's forces, plundered Burhanpur, and again defeated them at Lalling in Khandesh. Nasir Khan died of vexation in 1437, and Malik-ut-Tujjar returned in triumph to Bidar. In 1436, in the reign of Ala-ud-din Shah Bahamani II (1435-1457), the king's brother Prince Muhammad, in the hope of making himself independent, with the aid of the Vijayanagar king to whom he was sent to demand tribute, took Sholapur and other neighbouring places. He was soon defeated and forced to accept Raichur as an equivalent for the territory he had usurped. There was another war with Vijayanagar in 1443, and three severe engagements were fought in a month. The Raja eventually submitted, and the peace which followed was not broken for many years. A second expedition was sent into the Konkan in 1453 under the command of Malik-ut-Tujjar, but after a few successes, the force was ensnared into a narrow pass and the whole of it destroyed. In 1455 Ala-ud-din marched against the king of Gujarat, who had invaded his dominions but the latter retired, and the Bahamani king returned to Bidar, where he died in 1457.
The next king, Humayun, entered on a campaign into Telangana in 1459, and during his absence an insurrection broke out at Bidar. He returned, and having quelled the disturbance, put his brothers to a cruel death and was very severe with the insurgents. In 1460, a famine known as Damajipant's famine again wasted the Deccan. According to the local story a Brahman named Damajipant was employed at Mangalvedha about twelve miles south of Pandharpur, as a revenue officer under the Bidar Government. He had charge of a large store of Government grain at Mangalvedha. Hundreds of Brahmans and others flocked to Mangalvedha and were fed by Damajipant out of the Government stores. Hearing of his breach of trust the Bidar king issued orders that Damaji should be seized and brought before him. While Damaji was on his way to Bidar, the god Vithoba, whom Damaji worshipped, took pity on his devotee and appearing as a village Mahar at Bidar paid the price of the grain distributed by Damaji. [Colonel Etheridge's Famine Report (1868), 99-100. The village priests at Mangalvedha point out the site of Damaji's house and of the corn cellars. Ditto.] Humayun died in 1461. Nizam Shah, his son, was a minor, and a council of regency was appointed, consisting of the queen-mother assisted by Khwaja Mahmud Gawan and Khwaja Jahan Turk. The Rajas of Orissa and Warangal, thinking the Government would be weak because the king was a minor, invaded the country, but were driven back. The Sultan of Malwa also became hostile and marched upon Bidar, where he defeated the Bahamani army and invested the fort. The queen-mother carried the young king to
Firozabad on the Bhima, and solicited the aid of the Sultan of Gujarat. The latter responded with an army of 80,000 horse, and was met by Mahmud Gawan, governor of Berar, who had cut off the communications of the enemy. The siege was raised, and the Malwa army suffered greatly in its retreat through the mountainous country of Gondwana. The invasion was renewed in the following year by way of Daulatabad, but the Sultan of Gujarat again interfered, and the enemy was forced to fall back. Nizam Shah returned to Bidar, where he died on July 30, 1463.
Prince Muhammad, the brother of the late king, succeeded to the throne, and as he was only nine years of age, the council of regency was maintained. Khwaja Jahan Turk contrived to keep Mahmud Gawan employed at a distance, while he usurped the queen-mother's authority and greatly mis-used it; in consequence of which, Muhammad Shah denounced him in public darbar, and Nizam-ul-Mulk put him to death. His colleague Mahmud Gawan was called to Bidar, and assumed executive charge while Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed governor of Berar. In 1465 Mahmud Gawan was appointed Prime Minister.
In 1468 a force was sent against the troublesome little Gond state on the northern frontier, which in conjunction with Malwa, was a constant source of irritation. The expedition was successful but Nizam-ul-Mulk, who commanded it, was treacherously killed by some of the enemy after Kherla was taken. The king of Malwa then invaded Berar, and Ellichpur was captured by his general Makbul Khan. A peace soon followed, by which Kherla was given to the king of Malwa, who in his turn renounced all claims to Berar or any part of the Bahamani kingdom. Mahmud Gawan next marched into Konkan, while Yusuf Adil Khan, the governor of Daulatabad, was sent against the independent chieftains of the mountains bordering on Khandesh. Both these expeditions were successful, and in 1471 the king entered on a campaign against Telangana. In 1472 and 1473 another failure of rain so wasted the country that in 1474 when rain fell scarcely, hardly any one was left to till the land.
The power and turbulence of the provincial governors was a source of weakness and danger to Bahamani rule. To remove this evil, Mahmud Gawan, the learned and able minister of Muhammad Shah Bahamani II (1463-1482), framed a scheme under which the territories were divided into eight instead of into four provinces. The province of Gulbarga was divided into Bijapur and Ahasanabad, and Ahasanabad, of which Sholapur formed a part, was entrusted to Dastur Dinar, an Abyssinian eunuch, and under him Sholapur and Parenda, with the eleven surrounding districts, were entrusted to two brothers, Zain Khan and Khwaja Jahan. In each province only one fort was left in the governor's hands; all others were entrusted to captains and
garrisons appointed and paid from head-quarters. The pay of the captains was greatly raised and they were forced to keep their garrisons at full strength. This scheme brought on Mahmud Gawan the hatred of the leading nobles who in 1481, by false charges of treason, succeeded in procuring his death. Bahamani power never recovered the loss of Mahmud Gawan. In 1485, Bid and other districts near Daulatabad were added to the estates of the Bahamani minister Nizam-ul-Mulk, the successor of Mahmud Gawan, who appointed Khwaja Jahan, governor of Parenda and the eleven surrounding districts. The end of Bahamani rule was at hand. In 1489 Yusuf Adil Shah, the governor of Bijapur, assumed independence and over-ran all the country north of Bijapur as far as the Bhima, including the present Sholapur subdivisions of Malshiras, Sangola, and part of Pandharpur. Immediately on his revolt Yusuf Khan was attacked by Kasim Barid, the Bahamani minister, who induced the Vijayanagar king Narsimh II (1487-1508) to join in the war. By skilful movements Yusuf defeated this combination. Under the partition treaty of 1497, between Malik Ahmad, the Nizam Shahi king of Ahmadnagar, Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur, and Imad-ul-Mulk of Berar, the whole province of Daulatabad, which must have included Parenda and its eleven districts became part of Malik Ahmad's dominions. Khwaja Jahan of Parenda and his brother Zain Khan, though excluded from this partition treaty, continued to hold Parenda and the eleven surrounding districts in subjection to Ahmadnagar. Zain Khan, the younger brother, who was governor of Sholapur, laid claim to half of the eleven districts and endeavoured to obtain a grant from Bidar to that effect. But Khwaja Jahan, supported by Malik Ahmad of Ahmadnagar, succeeded in keeping the whole and opposing the claims of Zain Khan at the court of Bidar. In 1498 he was again attacked by Vijayanagar, the army according to Ferishta being commanded by Timraj, the regent-minister, and the Raja himself accompanying it. Yusuf fell on the army with his cavalry, which seem to have been his only troops. He was repulsed but renewed the attack with such vigour that the Vijayanagar army fled and the Raja himself was so severely wounded that he died on his way to the capital. The results of the victory were most important; an immense amount of booty, in elephants, horses and gold, was captured, and Yusuf was firmly established on his throne. Shortly after, Yusuf had the honour of receiving his former master, Mahmud Shah Bahamani, in his capital, and of showing him the new citadel and the palaces which were nearly finished. A marriage between Bibi Mussiti, Yusuf's daughter and Mahmud's son Ahmad Shah was arranged, and the betrothal was performed with great pomp at Gulbarga. In the same year (1498), when the Bahamani country was formally distributed among Yusuf Adil Khan of Bijapur, Ahmad Nizam Khan of
Ahmadnagar, and Kasim Band of Bidar, Goa and the neighbouring districts fell to Yusuf and a Bijapur officer was appointed to Goa.
During his reign of twenty-one years, with varying results, the king was always embroiled in quarrels with the Bahamani minister Kasim Barid, and with the king of Ahmadnagar. About 1502 Yusuf nearly caused his own downfall by proclaiming the public profession of the Shia creed in Bijapur. His education in Persia, the centre of the Shia faith, had given Yusuf a liking for this sect. He was compelled for a time to conform to the Sunni doctrines, the established religion at the Bahamani court, but seems to have taken the first opportunity of publicly professing himself a Shia. The occasion was critical. Some of his foreign troops were Shias, but the majority, Turks, Deccanis and Abyssinians, were Sunnis, and none of the neighbouring kings was likely to look with favour on the establishment of heretical doctrines in the new kingdom. None of these reasons was sufficient to deter Yusuf who carried out his plans with his usual judgment. The free profession of the Sunni faith was allowed in all his dominions, a toleration which greatly aided him in maintaining his power. The Ahmadnagar king Ahmad Bhairi (1490-1509), Kutb-ul-Mulk of Golkonda, and Amir Barid of Bidar combined against him on religious grounds and invaded the kingdom. Yusuf, finding he could not meet the allies in a general engagement, entrusted the defence of the capital to his general Kamal Khan, marched north, and endeavoured to create a diversion by ravaging the country and cutting off the supplies of the invading armies. He also tried to obtain aid from Imad-ul-Mulk, king of Berar; but that monarch advised him, if he wished to save his kingdom, to recall his edict in favour of the Shia faith. Yusuf recalled his edict, and Imad-ul-Mulk succeeded in detaching Ahmad Bhairi and Kutb-ul-Mulk from the league. The only member of the alliance now in arms against Yusuf was Amir Barid of Bidar, but on the approach of Yusuf's troops he fled, leaving to Yusuf his camp and all his effects. Thus ended what is called in the Deccan, " The Holy War of the Faithful Brethren ". The object for which this war was undertaken was not gained. On his return to his capital, Yusuf re-established the public profession of the Shia faith. In 1509, on the death of Malik Ahmad of Ahmadnagar (1490-1509), Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur marched against Khwaja Jahan, and compelled him to cede five and a half of the eleven districts round Sholapur to his brother Zain Khan. Yusuf seems to have developed the revenue reforms introduced in 1478 by Mahmud Gawan. He also seems to have revived those reforms of Mahmud Gawan which the revolution of 1489 had prevented from being carried out. Under Yusuf's government, though perhaps less regularly than afterwards under the Moghals, the country was parcelled into districts or sarkars. Each district was distributed
among sub-divisions which were generally known by the Persian names pargana, karyat, samat, mahal, and taluka, and sometimes by the Hindu names prant and desh. The revenue was generally farmed sometimes by the village. Where it was not farmed, the revenue was collected by Hindu officers. Over the revenue farmers and collectors was an agent or amil who collected the revenue, managed the police, and settled civil suits. Civil suits relating to land were generally referred to juries or panchayats. In cases of hereditary property to which government was a party the Bijapur jury consisted of fifteen men, of whom two-thirds were Musalmans and one-third were Hindus. Over each group of agents or amildars was a chief collector or mokasadar, from the Arabic moquaita the seat of customs. The office of chief collector in theory was held for a short term of years; in practice the chief collector was allowed to hold his post for a long period and sometimes to pass it to his son. Over the chief collector there was generally a provincial governor or subha. Deed and formal writings were made out in the governor's name, but he did not always live in the district and he never took part in its revenue management. Though the chief power in the country was Muhammedan large numbers of Hindus were employed in the service of the State. The garrisons of hill-forts were generally Hindus, Marathas, Ramoshis, and Bedars, fortified towns and a few hill-forts of special strength being reserved for Musalman commandants or killedars. Parts of the plain country with the title of estate-holder or jagirdar and of hereditary head or deshmukh, were entrusted to loyal Hindus, chiefly Brahmans, Lingayats and Marathas. The tenure of these estates was generally military, the value of the grant being in proportion to the number of troops which the holder maintained. Numbers of Hindus were employed in the Bijapur armies. Family feuds or personal hate, and in border villages probably a prospect for the chances of war, often led members of the same family to seek service in rival Musalman States. Hindus of distinguished service were rewarded with the Hindu titles of Raja, Naik and Rao. On the death of Yusuf Adil Shah (1510) the Bijapur regent Kamal Khan imprisoned the young king Ismail Adil Shah and his mother Bubuji Khanam, and marched with a force to Sholapur which he besieged for three months. As no aid came from Ahmad-nagar. Zain Khan, on receiving security for the safety of his family and wealth, delivered (1511) Sholapur into Kamal Khan's hands together with the five and a half districts of which he had charge. Parenda and its five and a half districts, including perhaps Karmala, Madha and Barshi, the three northern sub-divisions of the present district of Sholapur, remained for many years under Khwaja Jahan who seems to have been a half-independent vassal of the king of Ahmadnagar. In 1523, after one of their numerous wars, through the
intervention of Shah Tahir Junaidi, Ismail of Bijapur and Burhan of Ahmadnagar met in the fort of Sholapur and agreed to peace. On this occasion Burhan Nizam Shah asked the hand of Mariam, the sister of Ismail Adil Shah, and the marriage was held with great state. The kings interchanged valuable presents including elephants and horses, and the rejoicings lasted a whole month (Rajab H. 930). When the festivities were over the kings took leave of each other and returned to their capitals. It is asserted that in the treaty of alliance Asad Khan of Belgaum promised, on the part of his master Ismail Adil Shah, to give the fort of Sholapur, with its five and a half districts as a dowry with the Bijapur princess. But as Ismail Adil Shah afterwards denied that he had authorised this concession, Burhan Nizam Shah, under the advice of Shah Tahir, was induced to drop the demand and return to Ahmadnagar. During the next forty years the Nizam Shahi king's claim to Sholapur was the cause of constant wars. In 1524 the Bijapur princess quarrelled with her husband Burhan Nizam Shah because he treated a dancing girl called Amina as his chief wife. This quarrel led to war between Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. Burhan Nizam Shah secured the aid of Imad Shah, the king of Berar and of Amir Barid, regent of Bidar, and the confederates marched with forty thousand men to besiege Sholapur and to occupy the ceded districts. Ismail Adil Shah, with 10,000 foreign cavalry, advanced to meet the allies, and for forty days the armies continued encamped between the forts of Sholapur and Naldurg four miles from each other without coming to action. During this time of inaction 3,000 mounted foreign Bijapur bowmen were most successful in hovering round the allies camp and cutting off their supplies. Khwaja Jahan Dakhani, governor of Parenda, vexed with the inactivity of Burhan Nizam Shah, quitted the camp, attended by four thousand Dakhani cavalry, intending to surprise the Bijapur bowmen. Next evening the foreigners, as usual, took post for the night on the banks of a rivulet, and having picketed their horses were disarming and waiting for supper. As night set in, Khwaja Jahan Dakhani, with a reconnoitering party, came upon them, but was discovered at a short distance from the outposts by a sentry who gave the alarm. The bowmen instantly took to their horse, but before ail were mounted Khwaja Jahan fell on them and killed about three hundred. Khwaja Jahan's detachment, after returning from the pursuit, came to the spot on which the archers had been encamped, and dismounting, plundered and ate the archers' victuals. The Bijapur bowmen, seeing by their own experience how easily an army may be surprised, resolved to attack the camp of Burhan Nizam Shah. They accordingly moved direct to his lines, and the sentinels, taking them for Khwaja Jahan's detachment returning to camp, allowed them to pass. When in the midst of the camp, the Bijapur bowmen discharged their arrows and
made great havoc and pursued their route direct to the tent or Burhan Nizam Shah, confusion was general. Friends could not be known from foes, and the bowmen, when sated with slaughter and plunder, retired with little loss. Next morning, while the Ahmadnagar troops were still suffering from the terror caused by the night attack, Ismail Adil Shah Advanced to give battle. Burhan Nizam Shah and Imad Shah drew up their line, but in so great disorder and with such haste that they were unable to withstand the Bijapur onset. Imad Shah, being charged by Asad Khan the Bijapur champion, fled almost without a blow and did not halt till he reached his fort of Gavil in Berar. Burhan Nizam Shah was also on the point of giving way but being timely reinforced by Amir Barid with 6,000 fresh horse, continued to resist. At last Khush-Geldi Agha and Ismad Agha, the Turki officers in the Bijapur service, gained the enemy's rear with two thousand horse, while Asad Khan attacked the right wing. These assaults threw the Ahmadnagar troops into utter confusion and Burhan Nizam Shah, overcome by the weight of his armour, was nearly falling from his horse through faintness. At this stage of the action some Turki slaves, on seeing the state of the Ahmadnagar king, led his horse off the field and his army was instantly routed. About 300 Ahmadnagar troops were slain in the pursuit, and the royal Nizam Shahi standard fell into the hands of Asad Khan, besides forty elephants, many cannon, and the whole tents and baggage. After this victory Ismail Adil Shah returned in triumph to Bijapur, where he held rejoicings for a month and conferred rewards and honours on the officers who had distinguished themselves.
In 1528 Burhan Nizam Shah, accompanied by Amir Barid, again invaded Bijapur. Asad Khan completely defeated the allies within forty miles of Bijapur, a second time. Khwaja Jahan of Parenda and several officers of distinction were taken prisoners; the fugitives were pursued as far as Parenda; and much baggage and twenty elephants, among them the elephant which carried Burhan's canopied seat or ambari, were taken. In 1531, Ismail Adil Shah wrote to Burhan Nizam Shah that, as the cool season had begun, he proposed to make a tour of his dominions and intended to visit Sholapur and Naldurg; he hoped that Burhan Nizam Shah would warn the officers of This frontier not tc be alarmed or misconceive the object of his march. Burhan Nizam Shah in reply told Ismail Adil Shah that it would be more for his interest if he stayed at home. Ismail Adil Shah, who had started from Bijapur, received this message at Bahamanhalli while at evening prayer. He was so enraged that he started with only 400 horse and forty foot and reached the river at Naldurg, a distance of about sixty miles, before evening prayer on the next day. He dismissed Burhan's ambassadors telling them he had done all he was bound to do to
avoid war, that he would now wait for his royal brother to come, as he had repeatedly come before, and amuse himself with the sight of the stormy ocean of war. On the return of his ambassadors, Burhan Nizam Shah, attended by Amir Barid, marched with 25,000 horse and a considerable train of artillery to the Bijapur frontier. Ismail left the arrangement of the troops to Asad Khan. All the young men, sons of foreigners and Rajputs were formed into one body, composing a light division under Sanjar Khan, the son of Mirza Jahangir Kumi. while their fathers, who were mostly old, remained in the line, agreeing that this was a day for the young soldiers to show their courage. Asad Khan assumed command of the right wing, leaving the left to Mustafa Agha, Sikandar Agha, and Kush Geldi Agha, all Turki leaders of note. The centre was commanded by Ismail who joined as soon as the line was formed. On seeing that the colour of the canopy, the royal standard, and the enemy's flags were green instead of white, Ismail asked the cause of the change, and was told that they were the signs of rule conferred on Burhan Nizam Shah by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. While he was speaking, the light division became engaged and Ismail Adil Shah instantly advanced with his whole line. The action became general and was so well maintained on both sides that victory was long doubtful. At length Khurshid Khan, the commander of the Nizam Shahi army, was killed and his troops fled in disorder. Shortly after Burhan Nizam Shah was surrounded by the Bijapur horse, and was in danger of being taken prisoner, when his body-guard by a desperate effort freed their sovereign, and they escorted him from the field as he fled to Ahmadnagar without waiting to gather his scattered army. Much plunder fell into the victors' hands and Ismail Adil Shah's superiority was established throughout the Deccan. The battle was called the "Victory of the Foreign Boys" as the brunt of the fighting had fallen on them. The corps rose in the king's esteem and many of the youth were ennobled though their fathers were alive. This was the last contest between Ismail Adil Shah and Burhan Nizam Shah. They met on the frontier and made peace.
In 1540, when the breach between Ismail's son Ibrahim Adil Shah and his minister Asad Khan became known, Burhan Nizam Shah and Amir Barid circulated reports that whenever they would come, Asad Khan had promised to deliver them Belgaum. Accordingly in 1542 they invaded Ibrahim's territories and wresting the five and a half Sholapur districts from his officers, gave them to the servants of Khwaja lahan Dakhani and marched to Belgaum. The reconciliation between Ibrahim Adil Shah and Asad Khan changed the state of affairs. Ibrahim Adil Shah and Imad Shah marched against Burhan and Amir Barid, who retreated with haste towards Daulatabad, hotly pursued by the Bijapur and Berar troops who took ample revenge for the depredations
committed in Bijapur. Soon after this Amir Barid suddenly died, and Burhan Nizam Shah was reduced to sue for terms, sending the venerable Shah Tahir to make overtures. In the treaty which followed Burhan agreed to restore the five and a half districts to Ibrahim and promised never again to lay claim to them. When the treaty was signed and exchanged each of the sovereigns returned to his capital. In 1543 Ibrahim, with great pomp, married Rabia Sultana, daughter of Ala-ud-din Imad Shah of Berar, Burhan Nizam Shah, vexed at the issue of the late war, inspite of his promise, declared he could never rest till he had won back the five and a half Sholapur districts Shortly after, availing himself of some agreement between Ibrahim and Imad Shah, Burhan Nizam formed secret alliances with Ram Raja of Vijayanagar and Jamshid Kutb Shah of Golkonda to wage war against Bijapur on the south and east, while, with his own army and the troops of Ali Barid and Khwaja Jahan, he invaded them from the north. With this force he laid waste many districts, and on several occasions defeated the Bijapur troops, and the kingdom of Bijapur, attacked at once by three powerful armies in separate quarters, seemed on the brink of destruction. Ibrahim Adil Shah, at a loss how to act and without confidence in his councillors, sent for Asad Khan from Belgaum and asked his advice. Asad Khan observed that Burhan had urged the rest
to fight; if he could be removed it would be easy to manage the others. He advised that for the sake of peace the five and a half Sholapur districts should be given up. Ibrahim acted according to this advice and peace was concluded. Still Sholapur was not given to Ahmadnagar.
In 1549, to save his own territories from being wasted by the Ahmadnagar king, Ibrahim invaded Ahmadnagar. He came suddenly before Parenda, and finding the gates open, rushed with a body of troops into the fortress which submitted and was given in charge to one of his Dakhani officers. From Parenda Ibrahim laid waste the country round, levied contributions, and retreated on hearing of Burhar's approach. Before Burhan Nizam Shah arrived within many miles cf Parenda, the governor, who mistook a gnat near his ear for Burhan's distant war trumpets, fled by night without telling his followers. Next morning the garrison followed their chiefs example, and on the third day Burhan quietly entered the empty fortress.
In 1551 Burhan Nizam Shah, with the help of the Vijayanagar king Ram Raja, took Sholapur and strengthened it. Some time after, although peace was concluded between Husain Nizam Shah, Burhan's son and successor and Ibrahim Adil Shah, Khwaja Jahan, the hereditary chief of Parenda, who had fled to avoid the resentment of his sovereign, came to Bijapur and inspired Ibrahim with hopes of re-taking Sholapur. For this purpose Ibrahim concluded a treaty with Ram Raja
and invited into his service Saif Ain-ul-Mulk, commander-in-chief of the army of the late Burhan Nizam Shah, who nad taken refuge in Berar from Husain's oppression. Saif Ain-ul-Mulk accepted Ibrahim's proposals, and Ibrahim conferred on him high titles with considerable estates and presents of money. By his advice Ibrahim soon after espoused the cause of prince Ali, the son of Burhan Nizam Shah, who had taken refuge at his court. It was agreed that if Ali Nizam Shah gained the Ahmadnagar throne, the forts of Kalyani and Sholapur should be surrendered to Bijapur. To effect these objects, prince Ali, accompanied by the 2,000 horse which had come with him from Ahmadnagar, marched to the frontier to draw the nobles of that kingdom to his cause. This attempt met with little success. Husain Nizam Shah put his army in motion, and Ibrahim after distributing large sums among his troops, marched from Bijapur to support prince Ali. The armies met on the planes of Sholapur and drew up to engage. Ibrahim gave the command of his right wing to Saif Ain-ul-Mulk Gilani and Ankush Khan and the command of the left to Nur Khan and Imad-ul-Mulk, and himself took post with the household troops in the centre. The advanced guard was commanded by Saif Ain-ul-Mulk who pushed on from the line and began the action with great dash. Ibrahim Adil Shah, disapproving of his separation from the main body, ordered the advanced guard to keep closer to the line. Saif Ain-ul-Mulk answered that His Majesty was right, but that, as he had advanced so far, to return would only inspirit the enemy. Having sent this message Saif went on, seized and spiked the enemy's guns, and drove their picquets back on their main body. Here he was resolutely opposed by Husain Nizam Shah who commanded in person. Still the Nizam Shahi army began to give way and would have been defeated, had Saif Ain-ul-Mulk been supported. Several Nizam Shahi chiefs who had been engaged on the left came to the aid of their sovereign and almost surrounded Saif Ain-ul-Mulk whose division was thrown into confusion. Seeing the standards of Ibrahim Adil Shah, though at a distance as was his custom on desperate occasions, Ain-ul-Mulk dismounted, resolved to conquer or die. Some of the troops, seeing him dismount, told Ibrahim that Saif Ain-ul-Mulk had gone over to the enemy and had alighted to pay his respects to Husain Nizam Shah. Ibrahim's suspicions of treachery were confirmed, and he fled from the field and did not draw rein till he reached Bijapur.
In 1557, Ali Adil Shah, the successor of Ibrahim Adil Shah, anxious to recover the forts of Kalyani and Sholapur, without waiting for the customary compliment of receiving ambassadors from the surrounding powers, despatched Kishwar Khan and Shah Abu Turab Shirazi to negotiate a treaty of alliance with Ram Raja at Vijayanagar. At the same time he sent Muhammad Husain Sadikki for the same purpose
to Ahmadnagat. Ram Raja received the ambassadors with great honour and sent back one of his confidential officers with Kishwar Khan to congratulate the king on his accession. Husain Nizam Shah, jealous of Ali Adil Shah's designs against Sholapur, did not show the usual respect to his embassy, nor send one in return, but gave strong proofs of enmity. Ali Adil Shah, intent on repairing the losses sustained by his father, entered into a close alliance with Ram Raja. As his enmity towards Husain Nizam Shah daily increased Ali Adil Shah sent him a message through Shah Husain Anju, that it was clear that the forts of Kalyani and Sholapur belonged to his family by ancient right, though owing to his father's misfortunes they had passed into the hands of the Nizam Shahi kings, that now he hoped they both, or at all events Kalyani would be restored. As Shah Husain Anju's arguments failed to induce Husain Nizam Shah to give up either place, Ali Adil Shah sent another ambassador to Ahmadnagar, representing that passion and obstinacy in the discussion of political questions did not become great kings, and that to prevent ill consequences he trusted Husain Nizam Shah would see the justice of giving up the forts when the friendship between their States would increase. If not, he might look for an army which would waste his dominions without mercy. Husain Nizam Shah answered this message by an indecent jibe which so enraged Ali Adil Shah that by way of defiance, according to the Deccan custom, he changed his canopy and standard from yellow to green which was Husain Nizam Shah's colour. In the war that followed the Ahmadnagar king was forced to leave his capital which was besieged by the Bijapur and Golkonda kings and by Ram Raja of Vijayanagar. At last, the Golkonda king persuaded Ali Adil Shah to raise the siege and march against Sholapur. When within some miles of Sholapur Kishwar Khan, the Bijapur minister, seeing the dangerous power and ambition of the Hindu king, represented to Ali Adil Shah that, if the fort of Sholapur fell, Ram Raja would probably keep it and the country round it for himself. It seemed advisable to reduce the fort of Naldurg md to leave Sholapur to a more convenient time. Ali Adil Shah approved of this advice and persuaded Ram Raja to change his plan and move to Naldurg where the allies took leave ofaeach other and returned to their dominions. Some time after, Ali Adil Shah thought of forming league between the three Musalman kings of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golkonda against the Hindu king Ram Raja of Vijayanagar, and the Golkonda king promised Ali Adil Shah to obtain for him the fort of Sholapur which had been the original cause of the disagreement between the Ahmadnagar and Bijapur kings. It was agreed that Husain Nizam Shah should give his daughter Chand Bibi in marriage to Ali Adil Shah with the fortress of Sholapur as her dowry; that he should receive Haddia Sultana. Ali
Adil Shah's sister, as a consort for his eldest son Murtaza; that a treaty of eternal friendship should be passed between the two States; and that they should unite to reduce the power of Ram Raja. In 1565 Ram Raja was slain in the battle of Talikot and his army scattered, Vijayanagar was taken and sacked, and the power of the great Hindu kingdom was at an end.
For many following years there was peace. In 1590, Dilawar Khan, the Bijapur regent, attempted to raise himself to supreme power, and was driven from the country. He fled to Ahmadnagar and was favourably received by Burhan Nizam Shah II (1591-1594), enrolled among his nobles, and appointed to reduce the forts of Sholapur and Shahdurg. Ibrahim Adil Shah sent ambassadors to request that Dilawar Khan might be sent to him. Burhan Nizam Shah instead of granting this demand prepared for war. In 1592 on Dilawar Khan's advice he marched towards Bijapur, and passing the frontier laid the country waste. On reaching Mangalvedha about twelve miles south of Pandharpur as no army was sent to meet him, Burhan suspected some device to draw him into the heart of the Bijapur kingdom, and retreated. At the Bhima Dilawar Khan persuaded him to halt near a ruined fortress which he ordered to be repaired. Ibrahim Adil Shah, who had neither given orders to assemble his nobles nor taken measures to defend his country, on hearing of the repairs to the ruined fort said that Burhan would shortly act like the child who builds walls of clay and then destroys them with his own hands. Ibrahim continued to act as if no enemy was in his country; and, contenting himself with despatching a few horse to watch Burhan Nizam's motions, appeared to give himself to amusement. Burhan Nizam consulted his officers. Some said Ibrahim was sunk in pleasure and neglected his kingdom, others believed that he suspected his officers and was afraid of calling them together. Ibrahim, who was well informed of what was passing, sent a message to Dilawar Khan pardoning him for his past offences and asking himto return and take charge of his affairs. Dilawar Khan suspecting no treachery, with Burhan Nizam Shah's permission, went back to his master, and was blinded and imprisoned until his death. When he was rid of Dilawar Khan, Ibrahim sent his Bargi or Maratha chiefs with 6,000 horse to cut off all supplies from Burhan's camp, and sent 10,000 horse under Rumi Khan Dakhani and 3,000 more of the household troops under Elias Khan against Burhan. The Bargi cavalry greatly distressed the enemy, defeating several detachments till Burhan Nizam advanced in person to attack them. Unable to oppose regular troops the Bargis re-crossed the Bhima which was then fordable, and a flood immediately after swelling the river prevented their being pursued, and Burhan Nizam returned to his lines. After this Burhan suffered so severelv from famine and pestilence that he was forced to
retire several marches. When he had received supplies and the pest had somewhat abated Burhan Nizam moved again intending to lay siege to Sholapur. He was met on his march by Rumi Khan and Elias Khan who defeated a large part of his army under Nur Khan, Amir-ul-Umra of Berar and took a hundred elephants and 400 horses. After this loss the allairs of Burhan Nizam Shah declined daily, and numbers of his troops tired of a long and fatiguing campaign, deserted his camp and conspired against his life. On discovering the plot, Burhan, full of suspicion, began his retreat towards Ahmadnagar. His first march was so harassed that he thought it imprudent to attempt moving further till he could make peace with Ibrahim Adil Shah to whom he sent ambassadors. For nearly a month Ibrahim refused to listen to any accommodation till Burhan Nizam Shah destroyed the fort he had built within Bijapur territory on the bank of the Bhima. To this Burhan reluctantly agreed. He threw down the first stone with his own hands, and his troops demolished the whole fabric which had cost much trouble and expense. Then disheartened he marched quickly back to Ahmadnagar.
In-1594 Burhan Nizam Shah entered into a treaty with Venkatadri of Penkonda and resolved again to invade Ibrahim's territories. He accordingly despatched Murtaza Khan Anju at the head of 10,000 horse wiih orders to reduce Shahdurg and Shohpur. Murtaza Khan Anju advanced as far as Parenda and halting there, sent detachments to lay waste and plunder the country round. These troops suffered a severe check, their commander Uzbeg Khan was killed, and his force defeated under the walls of Sholapur.
In 1600, the city of Ahmadnagar was taken by the Moghals. After this, partly from the disorders caused by the rebellion of Jahangir's son Khusru, which followed Jahangir's accession on the death of Akbar in 1605, Moghal power in the Deccan declined. Their generals in Ahmadnagar had also to deal with the Abyssinian Malik Ambar. a man of the highest civil and military talent. Though the Moghals still held Ahmadnagar fort, in 1605 Malik Ambar raised Murtaza Nizam Shah II to the throne, and succeeded in making Khadki pear Elura, afterwards called Aurangabad, the head-quarters of a State which included the greater part of the former Ahmadnagar possessions. Malik Ambar's power remained unshaken till his death in 1626 when he was succeeded in the regency by his son Fatteh Khan. Great as was his success as a general, Malik Ambar is best known by his land revenue system. He stopped revenue-farming, and, under Musalman supervision, entrusted the collection of the revenues to Brahman agents. He renewed the broken village system, and, when several years of experiments had enabled him to ascertain the average yield of a field, took about two-fifths of the out-turn in kind, and afterwards (1614)
commuted the grain payment to a cash payment representing about one-third of yield. Unlike Todar Mal, Akbar's famous minister, by whom the lands of north India were settled, Malik Ambar did not make his settlement permanent, but allowed the demand to vary in accordance with the harvest. This system was so successful that, inspite of heavy war charges, his finances prospered and his territories which included the northern sub-divisions of Sholapur, throve and grew rich. In 1623 Malik Ambar collected an excellent army, and, bringing grain from Daulatabad laid siege to Sholapur and took it by storm. In 1629 the rains failed and a second failure in 1630 caused grievous suffering. Thousands left the Deccan, numbers perished in their homes, and whole districts were emptied of their people. The famine was accompanied by an almost complete loss of cattle and was followed by a pestilence.
In 1635, the Moghal general Shaista Khan marched towards the Bijapur borders, reduced Naldurg, and occupied the districts between Sholapur and Bidar. In 1636, under a treaty between the Bijapur king and the Moghals, the Nizam Shahi dynasty came to an end, and it was settled that the forts of Parenda and Sholapur with their dependent districts should be given to the Bijapur king Mahmud Adil Shah. For the next thirty years (1636-1665) no reference to Sholapur has been traced. In 1665, the Moghals entered into a treaty with Shivaji to undermine the power of Bijapur under which Shivaji, with 2,000 horse and 3,000 foot, co-operated with Jaysingh, the Moghal commander. The combined armies started from Saswad on 25th November 1665. Ali Adil Shah, the Bijapur king, endeavoured to prevent the invasion by promising to settle the Moghal demand. Jaysingh, the Moghal commander, however, continued his advance from Phaltan which he had reduced. He reached Mangalwedha on 18th December. He had met with little opposition so far but near Mangalwedha, the Bijapur horse appeared and acted against him with great vigour. Abdul Muhammad, the prime minister, was the commander of the Bijapur forces. The chief officers were Abdul Karim Bahlol Khan, Khawas Khan, Sidi Aziz, and Ekoji Raja Bhosle, Shivaji's half-brother from Bangalore and Maloji Ghorpade of Mudhol. The Maratha horse in the service of Bijapur fought with uncommon spirit, Ekoji Raja and Rattaji Mane Deshmukh of Mhasvad in Satara being most conspicuous. On the side of the Moghals Shivaji and Netaji Palkar distinguished themselves, particularly on one occasion when they had command of the rear guard. They were also detached against several places of strength which were reduced by Shivaji's infantry. But after all the war did not turn out as successful for the Moghals as they had expected. An open breach developed between Jaysingh and Diler Khan, the top men of the Moghal army, which affected the fortunes of war very adversely.
Treaty at Agra, Skolapur passes to the Moghals, 1668: About the middle of 1668, a treaty was concluded at Agra between Aurangzeb and Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur. The terms on the part of the Bijapur government were negotiated by Shah Abdul Husain Kaman, who, as the price of peace, gave up the fort of Sholapur and territory yielding 1,80,000 pagodas of yearly revenue. In 1679, Bijapur was besieged by the Moghals, and Shivaji who was called to help the besieged, marched with a large body of cavalry to Bijapur. Finding he could not force the Moghals to raise the siege he made a show of attacking, and, advancing slowly until within twenty-four miles of the camp, turned to the north, rapidly crossed the Bhima, and attacked the Moghal possessions with fire and sword, leaving the inhabitants houseless and the villages in ashes. As the besiegers did not raise the siege of Bijapur, Shivaji continued his depredations from the Bhima to the Godavari. In 1684 Aurangzeb issued orders to levy a tax of Rs. 12 on every Rs. 2,000 owned by all except Muhammedans. In 1686 when the final siege of Bijapur began Aurangzeb's camp was at first at Sholapur. Later at the beginning of Shaban, in the 28th year of the reign he set out from Sholapur and moved to Bijapur to help in the siege.
After reducing Bijapur in October 1686 Aurangzeb marched to Golkonda which fell into his hands in September 1687. From Golkonda he returned to Bijapur where he remained till in 1689 he was driven north by a deadly plague. "The plague (ta un) and pestilence (waba), which had for several years been in the Dakhin as far as the port of Surat and the city of Ahmadabad, now broke out with violence in Bijapur, and in the royal camp. It was so virulent that when an individual was attacked with it, he gave up all hope, and thought only about his nursing and mourning. The black-pated guest-slayer of the sky sought to pick out the seed of the human race from the field of the world, and the cold blast of destruction tried to cut down the tree of life in every living being, and to remove every shoot and sign of life from the surface of the world. The visible marks of the plague were swellings as big as a grape or banana under the arms, behind the ears, and in the groin, and a redness was perceptible round the pupils of the eyes, as in fever or pestilence (waba). It was the business of heirs to provide for the interment of the dead, but thousands of obscure and friendless persons of no property died in the towns and markets, and very few of them had the means of
burial......It began in the twenty-seventh year of the reign, and
lasted for seven or eight years." Aurangzeb retired from Bijapur and encamped at Akluj on the Bhima near Pandharpur about eight miles north-east of Malshiras in order to concentrate all his power and energy against Sambhaji. After his arrival at Akluj he was harassed by plundering parties of Marathas and detachments were sent
to Sambhaji's territories. One of these under Mukarrab Khan was sent to Kolhapur. Mukarrab Khan succeeded in capturing Sambhaji and twenty-six others at Sangameshvar in Ratnagiri and marched with the prisoners to the Moghal camp. The news of Sambhaji's capture reached Aurangzeb first through the news reports and was received at Akluj with great rejoicing. During the four or live days when Mukarrab Khan was known to be approaching with the prisoners, all classes were so over-joyed that they could not sleep and went out four miles to meet the prisoners and give expression to their joy. In every town or village on or near the road, wherever the prisoners passed the doors and roofs were full of men and women who looked on rejoicing. Sambhaji who was publicly ridiculed was fretting with bitterness of soul and when an offer was made to spare his life on certain conditions he spurned it. He gave free vent to his long pent-up sentiments against Muslim faith and loosened his tongue in abuse of the emperor and his prophet. This decided his fate. He was cruelly executed at Koregaon on the river Bhima on 11th March 1689. After Sambhaji's execution, Rajaram was proclaimed king on February 9, 1689. This move did not fail to disillusion the emperor and prove that the Maratha monarchy was not at an end. To nip this revival of Maratha royal power in the bud, he sent his able general Zulfikar Khan to invest Raygad. The Khan arrived before the fort on March 25, 1689 and laid siege to it. Though the fort resisted stoutly the fight was a hopeless one. Rajaram therefore slipped out of the fort on April 5, 1689 with a decision to continue the light from outside the Swarajya territory. The fort ultimately surrendered with Yesubai and Shahu becoming Moghal captives. Under Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother and successor, the Marathas began to plunder the Moghal dominions in the north Deccan and successfully resisted the Moghal detachments sent to oppose them under the able leadership of Ramchandrapant Amatya, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. These raids greatly annoyed Aurangzeb who, in 1694, in the hope of drawing the enemy southwards, moved from a place on the Bhima to Galgale in south-west Bijapur. This feint proved unsuccessful. Jinji now became the centre of Maratha activity. The Maratha raids continued in the north and Ramchandrapant, the Maratha leader, levied contributions as far east as Sholapur. Aurangzeb was forced to bring back his unwieldy army to Brahmapuri on the Bhima below Pandharpur in 1695 where he established his chief store and built a cantonment in which he held his court. This place he re-named Islampuri and here he stayed for over four years from May 1695 to October 1699. From Brahmapuri the operations of his armies and the affairs of his empire were directed for several years. In 1699, when Rajaram was on tour collecting chauth and sardeshmukhi, Zulfikar Khan, whose success in
the Karnatak made him the only Moghal officer whom the Marathas dreaded, was ordered to repair to the cantonment at Brahmapuri. It was then determined to adopt a new plan of operations by which while one army attacked the Marathas in the field another was sent apart for the reduction of their forts. The fort army Aurangzeb reserved for himself, and gave the command of the field army to prince A'zam's son Bedar Bakht with Zulflkar Khan as his lieutenant. Zulfikar Khan's first effort was to attack Rajaram, when he was plundering Jalna in the Nizam's territories. The attack was so vigorous that Rajaram had to fly pursued by the Moghal army. Rajaram evaded pursuit; but the fatigue of the march brought on an illness which proved fatal. He made for Sinhgad where he expired on March 2, 1700. While Zulfikar Khan was in pursuit of Rajaram the cantonment at Brahmapuri was abandoned much to the regret of idle Moghal officers many of whom had built excellent houses. A store was formed under the protection of the fort of Mashnur, about twenty-five miles southwest of Sholapur, which was within the line of the cantonment and a strong guard was left for its protection. The emperor marched to Satara which after some resistance surrendered in June 1700.
The emperor with the greatest efforts in the subsequent years succeeded in capturing only four major forts and a few minor ones. However, these forts were only nominally secured through payment of money and were soon re-captured within a year or so, no sooner the emperor proceeded towards the Berad country in the south where he spent the most tragic years of his life. The Marathas constantly hovered round his camp and carried away everything they could lay their hands on. With the fall of Wakinkheda, the Berad stronghold, he returned to Ahmadnagar where he died on February 20, 1707.