Organisation: After the re-organisation of States in 1956, a new department, viz., Department of Social Welfare was constituted at the ministerial level. The backward class welfare work done by Backward Class department in the past was accordingly entrusted to the separate wing created for this purpose. The designation of the Director of Backward Class Welfare was changed to Director of Social Welfare who is the head of the department. The post of the Chief Inspector of Certified Schools and Institutions was re-designated as Deputy Director of Social Welfare (Correctional Wing). There is also one Special Officer who looks after the work relating to the education and social welfare of the physically-handicapped.

The Divisional Officers, posted at divisional level, supervise the work of Social Welfare Officers in-charge of districts. Since the formation of the Zilla Parishads, the services of the Social Welfare Officers have been transferred to the district sector and they work under the Chief Executive Officers of the Zilla Parishads. The Social Welfare Officer is assisted in his work by one Social Welfare Inspector and one Social Welfare Organiser.

The subject of welfare of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes in the district is within the purview of the Zilla Parishad. In the membership of standing committee, which is a most powerful committee of the Zilla Parishad, at least two members from backward classes are required to be elected by the Parishad. The standing committee acts as the subjects committee for that subject and the Social Welfare Officer works under it. A sub-committee consisting of the President of Zilla Parishad, all Harijan councillors and two non-backward members of the standing committee and the Social Welfare Officer as the Secretary selects and scrutinises applications of the beneficiaries.

Measures of uplift: In view of the economic and social weakness of the backward classes, it is the policy of the Government that this section must be specially looked after. An amount of Rs. 53.85 lakhs has been provided in the District Plan, which will be supplemented to the general programmes of development in other sectors. In addition, it is proposed to earmark 15 per cent of the revenue of the Zilla Parishad for backward class welfare schemes.

The total population, as per 1971 Census of the district, is 22.54 lakhs. Out of this the population of scheduled castes and tribes is 3.29 lakhs, which is 14 per cent of the total population. During the Fifth Plan an amount of Rs. 53.85 lakhs will be spent on welfare of backward classes. Details of information are as under:-


Fifth Plan proposed outlay

(Rupees in lakhs)



Economic uplift


Health, housing and others




The disabilities of the backward classes are educational, economic and social. In the following pages are described some of the attempts made by the official and non-official agencies to eliminate these drawbacks.

Educational: The uplift of the backward classes is sought in various ways. First, all special facilities are given to them for education at all stages irrespective of income and age. The students get freeships, examination fees and scholarships. Provision of overseas scholarship is also made for them.

In the year 1970-71 the total backward class beneficiaries in pre-primary and primary institutions were 280 and 65,831, respectively. It is estimated that about 3,500 students will be benefited by the scheme of exemption from tuition fees and examination fees. A provision of Rs. 2.50 lakhs is made in the Fifth Plan for this purpose. Under the scheme of award of scholarships, 2,000 students will be benefited by this scheme at the rate of Rs. 100 per beneficiary. A provision of Rs. 2.00 lakhs has been made for this scheme.

The financial position of the backward classes is too weak for them to make lodging and boarding arrangements for their children at the places where they go for prosecuting their studies. The voluntary agencies are, therefore, encouraged to start hostels and are paid grants by the Government at the rate of Rs. 25 and Rs. 30 per month for boys' hostels and girls' hostels, respectively for a duration of ten months. Besides this, building grants, hostel rents, etc., are also given.

An amount of Rs. 4,06,556 was spent on 49 backward class hostels and sixteen cosmopolitan hostels in the district in the year 1962-63. A sum of Rs. 35,367 was spent as building grant towards four backward class hostels during the same period. The expenditure incurred in the year 1968-69 is shown in the following statement:-






Grant-in-aid to 63 hostels


2,450 students.

Rent to hostels



Building grants


5 hostels.

At present there are 67 hostels in the district with a sanctioned strength of 3,166 students. With the expansion of education, more hostels are required to be opened. It is therefore proposed to open new eleven hostels for which a provision of Rs. 2.50 lakhs has been made in the District Plan of Sholapur.

There were four ashram schools in the district run by the Magas Samaj Seva Mandal, Harijan Sevak Sangh and Ajit Shikshan Prasarak Mandal. The expenditure incurred during 1968-69 on 508 students was Rs. 87,856. Out of these four schools, the schools located at Lamboli in Mohol taluka and Konhali in Akkalkot taluka are meant for vimukta jatis whereas the remaining two are for nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes, respectively.

The backward class students especially taking higher education are not in a position to purchase text-books due to poverty. Under the scheme of establishment of book-bank for students, they will be supplied the books on loan basis. It is proposed to open forty book-banks during the Fifth Plan for which a provision of Rs. 200 lakhs has been made. Each book-bank will be having books of the value of Rs. 5,000.

Economic: The economic problems faced by the backward classes are solved by the rehabilitation of backward tribes by granting them cultivable waste land and other facilities such as supply of plough and bullocks, implements, seeds etc., by establishing training centres in hereditary crafts and by providing financial help as also by introducing measures for housing etc.

During 1968-69, Rs. 18,818 were spent for granting loan-cum-subsidy for cottage industries. The number of beneficiaries was 18. Assistance for purchase of milch cattle to the scheduled castes and other backward classes was given to the extent of Rs. 2,100 to seven beneficiaries. The backward class cultivators are given financial assistance at 25 per cent of the cost as subsidy and 75 per cent of the cost as interest-free loan for land development operations. The expenditure incurred on this account during 1968-69 came to Rs. 9,300. The same stood at Rs. 17,855 in 1962-63. The number of beneficiaries during 1962-63 was 126.

Under the scheme of granting agricultural implements to the backward class cultivators an amount of Rs. 3,560 in the shape of loan and Rs. 1,158 as a subsidy was given to 48 agriculturists in 1968-69.

Under the scheme of development of agricultural lands, financial assistance in the form of loan and subsidy will be given to the agriculturists belonging to backward class. A provision of Rs. 4.50 lakhs has been made in the Fifth Plan under which an amount of Rs. 500 will be given to 900 cultivators.

A provision of Rs. 3.00 lakhs has also been made in the Fifth Plan to supply agricultural implements, improved seeds, fertilisers, etc About 1,500 beneficiaries will be covered by this scheme.

The scheme for construction of new wells and repairing of old ones is sanctioned by way of loans through land development banks upto the maximum amount of Rs. 2,000 for new wells and upto Rs. 1.000 for repairing old irrigation wells. This amount of loan can be raised in deserving cases. A subsidy of 30 per cent of the total cost of construction subject to a maximum amount of Rs. 600 is paid. An amount of Rs. 16,469 was spent under the scheme of drinking water wells in 1962-63. During the year 1968-69 an amount of Rs. 16,475 as loan and Rs. 3,329 as subsidy was granted towards the construction of eight new wells.

Many of the backward class people follow hereditary occupations such as carpentry, smithy, tanning, rope-making, etc. Basic training is given to such persons in order to improve their existing methods. During the training period, trainees are paid stipends at rates varying from Rs. 20 to Rs. 25 per month. During 1968-69 there were in all seven training centres in the district and an amount of Rs. 71,967 was spent on these centres.

Under the scheme of grant of loan-cum-subsidy for cottage industries and professions, it is proposed to give financial assistance to poor and needy persons in the form of loan and subsidy for starting and improvement of hereditary industries and professions. The number of persons that will be benefited by this scheme would be 1,100 and each individual will be given an assistance at the rate of Rs. 500 each. An amount of Rs. 5.50 lakhs has been provided in the Fifth Plan.

The number of both technical and non-technical educated unemployed persons amongst backward class community is on the increase. Under the scheme of self-employment to educated unemployed and skilled artisans, 175 beneficiaries will be given an assistance in the form of loan and subsidy at the rate of Rs. 1,000 each. An amount of Rs. 1.75 lakhs has been provided for this scheme.

Under the scheme of financial assistance for individual and group housing an amount of Rs. 3.00 lakhs has been provided in the Fifth Plan for giving financial assistance to persons beleonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, both for individual and group housing.

Social: The main social disability of the backward classes is untouchability, to eradicate which vigorous propaganda is carried out by social workers and agencies. Similarly sanskar kendras, balwadis are organised, film shows exhibited and gatherings are addressed at fairs and other places. Kirtan programmes and melas, inter-caste marriages and dinners etc., are arranged. Prizes are also awarded to the villages showing outstanding performance in eradicating the stigma of untouchability. The voluntary agencies are paid grants for this purpose at 90 per cent of the total expenditure. During the year 1962-63, Rs. 14,528 were spent under various schemes towards this end. In 1968-69 the amount stood at Rs. 4,999 as expenditure on two voluntary agencies and four propagandists.

During 1968-69 there were eight balwadis in the district and expenditure incurred on them was to the tune of Rs. 12,229. There were two sanskar kendras run by voluntary agencies and Rs. 1,326 were spent on them during the same year. The recreation centres are run each by the Sholapur Zilla Harijan Sevak Sangh and the Barshi Taluka Harijan Sevak Sangh. The expenditure incurred on these two centres during the year 1968-69 came to Rs. 4,320.