Geographically Solapur is located between 17.10 to 18.32 degrees north latutude and 74.42 to 76.15 degrees east longitude. The district is situated on the south east fringe of Maharashtra State and lies entirely in the Bhima and Seena basins. Whole of the district is drain either by Bhima river or its tributories.

The district is bounded on the north by Ahmednagar and Osmanabad distritcs, on the east by Osmanabad and Gulbarga (Karnataka State) districts, on the south by Sangli and Bijapur (Karnataka State) and on the west by Satara and Pune districts. There is no important hill system in the district. Only in the north of Barshi Taluka several spurs of Balaghat range pass south for a few kilometres. There are also a few scattered hills in Karmala, Madha and Malshiras Talukas. The district in general has flat or undulating terrain. The low table land and small separate hills in Karmala and Madha Talukas act as a Watershed between Bhima and Sina rivers The district covers geographical area of 14844.6 sq.kms. which is 4.82% of the total area of Maharashtra State. Out of the total area of the district 338.8 sq.kms (2.28%) is Urban area whereas remaining 14505.8 sq.kms. (97.72%) is Rural area. Areawise Karmala taluka is biggest covering an area of 1609.7 sq.kms and North Solapur is smallest covering an area of 736..3 sq.kms. 

Name of Taluka No. of Villages Area in Sq.Kms.
North Solapur 54 736.3
South Solapur 90 1195.3
Akkalkot 135 1390.3
Barshi 138 1483.1
Mangalwedha 81 1140.9
Pandharpur 95 1303.6
Sangola 103 1549.9
Malshiras 112 1522.2
Mohol 104 1408.4
Madha 117 1544.9
Karmala 118 1609.7

The soils of the district can broadly be classified into three types.

  • Black
  • Coarse Gray
  • Reddish

According to topography the district is divided in three natural zones.

  • Eastern Zone : This comprises of Barshi, North Solapur, South Solapur and Akkalkot Talukas. The soil is medium to deep black and of rich quality. Jawar, Bajra and Pulses are the main crops of this zone.
  • Central or Tansitional Zone : Mohol, Mangalwedha, eastern part of Pandharpur and Madha Taluka are covered by this zone. Like to moderate soil and uncertain rainfall marks this zone. Both Kharip and Rabbi crops are grown in this part.
  • Western Zone : Karmala, Sangola and Malshiras Talukas and western parts of Pandharpur comes under this zone. Shallow and poor type of soil, not retentive of moisture marks this part. Scanty and uncertain rainfall. Rabbi crops mainly grown in Karmala, Pandharpur and Madha Talukas while Kharip crops like Bajra and Groundnut are grown in Sangola and parts of Malshiras talukas.

Land Use Pattern

  • Agricultural Area – 11480 sq.kms.
  • Cultivable not in use – 380 sq.kms.
  • Non-agricultural – 690 sq.kms.
  • Grass Lands and Herbs – 720 sq.kms.
  • Forest Cover – 350 sq.kms.
  • Wastelands – 1260 sq.kms.
  • Draught prone areas (All eleven talukas) – 14844.6 sq.kms.

Agroclimatically entire district comes under rain shadow area. Rainfall is uncertain and scanty. The monsoon period is from second fortinght of June to end of September bringing rains from south-west monsoon.